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Why AMP is a threat to the Open WebWhat is AMP?
In plain English: AMP is Google’s attempt at making pages (and more) faster. They did a good job, pages built with the AMP framework will normally load faster. However, as this article explains, you won’t notice much of a difference unless the AMP library is served using the AMP cache, but more on that later.
The controversies with cached AMP pages
The AMP format is itself not much of a problem. In fact, we should applaud search engines that give ranking preference to fast-loading pages like AMP, but four aspects of its implementation are flawed:
“When you use the Google AMP Viewer, Google and the publisher that made the AMP page may each collect data about you.”The controversies with non-cached AMP pages
To be clear, the above flaws are only with AMP pages cached by Google (or another party like Bing or Cloudflare) but there are also plenty of pages simply utilizing the AMP framework, recognized by URLs such as bbc.com/news/amp/. However, these are also problematic, mainly because there's only a small performance improvement when AMP pages aren't cached and AMP pages tend to be less feature-rich and less diverse than their originals. And in some edge cases, it breaks stuff.
One could argue that the more popular the AMP framework becomes, the more AMP threatens the open web. That said, it should be clear that the biggest problem lies with the cached AMP pages.
AMP is open source, but that doesn't make it holy. Or as Ferdy Christant puts it quite nicely in his blog:
Google’s main defense is that AMP is open source. Which isn’t just a weak defense, it’s no defense at all. I can open source a plan for genocide. The term “open source” is meaningless if the thing that is open source is harmful.Just so we’re clear, I’m not claiming Google or the AMP project is evil (hell, they might even have good intentions!), but the fact is that AMP and it's implementation have some major flaws that threaten the Open Web. And as long as that's the case, AmputatorBot will be there to remove AMP from your URLs.
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Yes. You pick a peer and after some setup, create a bitcoin transaction to fund the lightning channel; it’ll then take another transaction to close it and release your funds. You and your peer always hold a bitcoin transaction to get your funds whenever you want: just broadcast to the blockchain like normal. In other words, you and your peer create a shared account, and then use Lightning to securely negotiate who gets how much from that shared account, without waiting for the bitcoin blockchain.
Yes, Lightning is open source. Anyone can review the code (in the same way as the bitcoin code)
Similar to the bitcoin network, no one will ever own or control the Lightning Network. The code is open source and free for anyone to download and review. Anyone can run a node and be part of the network.
No, your bitcoin will never leave the blockchain. Instead your bitcoin will be held in a multi-signature address as long as your channel stays open. When the channel is closed; the final transaction will be added to the blockchain. “Off-chain” is not a perfect term, but it is used due to the fact that the transfer of ownership is no longer reflected on the blockchain until the channel is closed.
Example: A and B have a channel. 1 BTC each. A sends B 0.5 BTC. B sends back 0.25 BTC. Balance should be A = 0.75, B = 1.25. If A gets disconnected, B can publish the first Tx where the balance was A = 0.5 and B = 1.5. If the node B does in fact attempt to cheat by publishing an old state (such as the A=0.5 and B=1.5 state), this cheat can then be detected on-chain and used to steal the cheaters funds, i.e., A can see the closing transaction, notice it's an old one and grab all funds in the channel (A=2, B=0). The time that A has in order to react to the cheating counterparty is given by the CheckLockTimeVerify (CLTV) in the cheating transaction, which is adjustable. So if A foresees that it'll be able to check in about once every 24 hours it'll require that the CLTV is at least that large, if it's once a week then that's fine too. You definitely do not need to be online and watching the chain 24/7, just make sure to check in once in a while before the CLTV expires. Alternatively you can outsource the watch duties, in order to keep the CLTV timeouts low. This can be achieved both with trusted third parties or untrusted ones (watchtowers). In the case of a unilateral close, e.g., you just go offline and never come back, the other endpoint will have to wait for that timeout to expire to get its funds back. So peers might not accept channels with extremely high CLTV timeouts. -- Source
Tiny payments are possible: since fees are proportional to the payment amount, you can pay a fraction of a cent; accounting is even done in thousandths of a satoshi. Payments are settled instantly: the money is sent in the time it takes to cross the network to your destination and back, typically a fraction of a second.
Yes, but not in theory. You could make a poorer lightning network without it, which has higher risks when establishing channels (you might have to wait a month if things go wrong!), has limited channel lifetime, longer minimum payment expiry times on each hop, is less efficient and has less robust outsourcing. The entire spec as written today assumes segregated witness, as it solves all these problems.
No, for now. For the first version of the protocol, if you wanted to send a normal bitcoin transaction using your channel, you have to close it, send the funds, then reopen the channel (3 transactions). In future versions, you and your peer would agree to spend out of your lightning channel funds just like a normal bitcoin payment, allowing you to use your lightning wallet like a normal bitcoin wallet.
Not really. Anyone can set up a node, and so it’s a race to the bottom on fees. In practice, we may see the network use a nominal fee and not change very much, which only provides an incremental incentive to route on a node you’re going to use yourself, and not enough to run one merely for fees. Having clients use criteria other than fees (e.g. randomness, diversity) in route selection will also help this.
Lightning is already being tested on the Mainnet Twitter Link but as for a specific date, Jameson Lopp says it best
Nope, because there is no custody ever involved. It's just like forwarding packets. -- Source
Furthermore, the Lightning Network scales not with the transaction throughput of the underlying blockchain, but with modern data processing and latency limits - payments can be made nearly as quickly as packets can be sent. -- Source
Each exchange will get to decide and need to implement the software into their system, but some ideas have been outlined here: Google Doc - Lightning Exchanges
Note that by virtue of the usual benefits of cost-less, instantaneous transactions, lightning will make arbitrage between exchanges much more efficient and thus lead to consistent pricing across exchange that adopt it. -- Source
According to Rusty's calculations we should be able to store 1 million nodes in about 100 MB, so that should work even for mobile phones. Beyond that we have some proposals ready to lighten the load on endpoints, but we'll cross that bridge when we get there. -- Source
No you'd remember the information from the last time you started the app and only sync the differences. This is not yet implemented, but it shouldn't be too hard to get a preliminary protocol working if that turns out to be a problem. -- Source
Lightning is based on participants in the network running lightning node software that enables them to interact with other nodes. This does not require being a full bitcoin node, but you will have to run "lnd", "eclair", or one of the other node softwares listed above.
All lightning wallets have node software integrated into them, because that is necessary to create payment channels and conduct payments on the network, but you can also intentionally run lnd or similar for public benefit - e.g. you can hold open payment channels or channels with higher volume, than you need for your own transactions. You would be compensated in modest fees by those who transact across your node with multi-hop payments. -- Source
Sure, you can help write up educational material. You can learn and read more about the tech at http://dev.lightning.community/resources. You can test the various desktop and mobile apps out there (Lightning Desktop, Zap, Eclair apps). -- Source
No -- Source
lit doesn't depend on having your own full node -- it automatically connects to full nodes on the network. -- Source
LND uses a light client mode, so it doesn't require a full node. The name of the light client it uses is called neutrino
Upon opening a channel, the two endpoints first agree on a reserve value, below which the channel balance may not drop. This is to make sure that both endpoints always have some skin in the game as rustyreddit puts it :-)
For a cheat to become worth it, the opponent has to be absolutely sure that you cannot retaliate against him during the timeout. So he has to make sure you never ever get network connectivity during that time. Having someone else also watching for channel closures and notifying you, or releasing a canned retaliation, makes this even harder for the attacker. This is because if he misjudged you being truly offline you can retaliate by grabbing all of its funds. Spotty connections, DDoS, and similar will not provide the attacker the necessary guarantees to make cheating worthwhile. Any form of uncertainty about your online status acts as a deterrent to the other endpoint. -- Source
You typically want to have more than one channel open at any given time for redundancy's sake. And we imagine open and close will probably be automated for the most part. In fact we already have a feature in LND called autopilot that can automatically open channels for a user.
Frequency will depend whether the funds are needed on-chain or more useful on LN. -- Source
You don't really set up a "node" in the sense that anyone with more than one channel can automatically be a node and route payments. Fees on LN can be set by the node, and can change dynamically on the network. -- Source
Yes but it has to be implemented in the Lightning software being used. -- Source
You won't have to do anything. With autopilot enabled, it'll automatically open and close channels based on the availability of the network. -- Source
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WeChat Promo Graphic
Aion Founder Matt Spoke completed an AMA on Thurs. December 6th, 2018 on WeChat to a Chinese investor community of over 2,000 members managed by Unitimes, a FinTech media platform. Below is the transcript of the interview.
Unitimes is a global media platform in Fintech and Blockchain industry, covering News, Knowledge and Events with objectivity. https://unitimes.media
Questions were posed by host Unitimes' Xiaqing Liu.
1. AION is called the third blockchain generation. How third generation evolved from first and second generation such as Bitcoin and Ethererum?
The first generation of blockchain networks was ushered in by Bitcoin. Blockchains focused on a single use-case and optimizing their network design for that functionality. In the case of Bitcoin, the use case was a censorship-resistant form of digital cash. The network was designed elegantly for with function with UTXO and high availability.
The second generation of blockchain networks was ushered in with Ethereum. Enabling applications to be built in the form of smart contractions and execute on a turing-complete state machine.
The third generation is focused on two core principles, 1) the scaling of these networks to provide the required performance by mainstream applications 2) enabling the communication of value and arbitrary data across these public networks.
2. Can you discuss Aion's implementations or approach to interoperability?
At the beginning of September, we launched the first implementation of our bridging protocol, named the "Token Transfer Bridge". This is a one directional bridge facilitated by a cluster of nodes and signatories running both Ethereum and Aion nodes. It was designed for the purpose of migrating our supply of ERC-20 tokens from Ethereum to native Coins on the Aion blockchain in an atomic method, in the hands of the user.
The second implementation of the bridge is being built by one of our ecosystem partners - Mavennet. They are building a bi-directional bridge between Ethereum and Aion, providing the ability to move tokens across chains. This implementation will be going into production early next year with a group of operators and projects.
在九月初，我们发布了第一个桥接协议——代币传输桥接器。这是一个由一群既支持以太又支持Aion的节点和签署来运行的单向桥接器。他的设计初衷是通过用户自己来将在Ethereum上的Aion ERC-20 代币自动的转移到Aion区块链的Aion代币。
3. How does AION differentiate itself from other cross-chain protocols/projects? Or what kind of obstacles do you deal with apart from cross-chain interoperability?
One of the biggest bottlenecks to building scalable cross-chain solutions is the probabilistic finality model that exists for the majority of adopted proof-of-work based chains. This bottleneck was evident with those who used our token transfer bridge. The bridge has to wait for ~15 minutes before confirming the Ethereum transactions. If in the future we are envisioning thousands of transactions occurring cross-chain, finality must be addressed in order to build a scalable and secure cross-chain communication mechanism. This is why we are focusing heavily on research toward consensus models that have near instant finality properties.
4. How are you addressing the major obstacles to mainstream dApp adoption?
在Aion，我们建立了一个广泛的架构来定义主流应用要在区中心化网络的要求，而这些主要可以被分为三类：安全性，可扩性和可用性。我们通过持续的研究和现有的web 3 和web 2.0开发者的不断反馈来改善了以上三个他们成功与否的关键需求。然后利用Aion的不断扩大，拓宽我们合作的生态圈，拔款和投资帮助我们解决这些需求的开发者，项目和贡献者。归根结底我们的最终工作目标就是减少主流应用开发者的阻碍。
At the Foundation we've built a comprehensive framework for identifying the requirements for mainstream applications to build on top of a decentralized network. At a high-level, these break down into three categories: Security, Scalability, and Usability. Through continuous research and feedback loops with current web 3 developers and web 2.0 developers, we refine these requirements and their success criteria. Then leveraging the growing Aion and broader Web 3 ecosystem we partner, grant and invest in people, projects and contributors that solve these requirements.
Ultimately our job is to reduce the barrier to entry for mainstream application developers.
5. What use cases does AION enable? Can you name a few?
Right now we've seen significant interest and development from existing applications in various industries like gaming or mobility that are looking to leverage certain properties of decentralization - whether that be incentives or data ownership. They are building on Aion as it provides a scalable infrastructure that can meet their user base requirements and it approachable to their developers to start building through comprehensive docs and tutorials. We have a proven track record of executing against our initiatives and when organizations are choosing where to build their future application they want to have that confidence.
6. What is AION's consensus mechanism?
目前发表的Aion Kilimanjaro 使用的是工作量证明共识机制。我们在Equihash的基础上更改了一些参数设置，从而完成了我们的Equihash_210_9来增加ASIC阻力并且使有效的参数组多元化。至于我们的共识机制的将来计划，我们的研究小组现在正在评估各种公式算法和实现，并且在拟写一个侧重于“确认性”，反垄断和可达性的共识提案。
The current Kilimanjaro release of the Aion blockchain utilizes PoW consensus. We've implemented a set of novel Equihash parameters - Equihash2109 for increased ASIC-resistance and to diversify the active parameter set. In terms of our consensus roadmap, our research team is currently evaluating the various consensus algorithms and implementations and developing a proposal focused on finality, collusion-resistance, and accessibility.
7. I learned that you were planning on basing your new Aion Virtual Machine on the JVM. Why did you go into that direction?
当我们纵观现有的虚拟机生态圈，与其建立一个新的运行环境来解决这些阻碍，我们认为Java虚拟机是最被采用，健康，有外置工具的生态系统。基于Java虚拟机建立的Aion虚拟机能够立即和围绕Java开发的100多个很好的工具互相整合，同时Java是一个很好的合约开发语并且Java虚拟机的性能也已经被证明了。再过去的六个月里我们都在努力的完成Aion虚拟机，在昨天，我们也发布了源代码（Github: https://github.com/aionnetwork/AVM）。 大家也可以阅读一下关于为什么选择基于Java虚拟机来完成Aion虚拟机的博文，（Why JVM: https://blog.aion.network/aion-virtual-machine-avm-why-java-and-the-jvm-240b78ad8a77）
When we looked at the challenges facing developers building on applications on blockchain networks or the EVM specifically, it came down to 3 major obstacles: 1) New and immature contract development language 2) Lack of production-grade developing tooling across the delivery workflow and 3) Low and execution performance.
Instead of building a new execution environment to overcome these obstacles we looked at the existing VM ecosystem and the JVM is clearly the most well adopted, robust and built-out tooling ecosystem. By building the AVM on the JVM we are able to integrate immediately into the 100's of amazing tools building around the Java development ecosystem, leverage Java - the top programming language for contract development, and utilize the proven performance of the JVM. We've been working hard over the past 6 months on the AVM and as of yesterday, the source code was released.
Why JVM: https://blog.aion.network/aion-virtual-machine-avm-why-java-and-the-jvm-240b78ad8a77
8. People tend to compare blockchain today with firstborn Internet era. What's the main difference between the two in your opinion?
I think the biggest difference from a market perspective is that when the internet was in its early development, the small tech companies that were building were relatively in stealth, their activates weren't public that no one knows what their value was. Investors or employees wouldn't know the value of their companies until years later when they went public. With blockchain companies, the organizations building these public networks immediately have fully-fungible assets, whose value changes in real-time 24/7. While there are many parallels to the stage of development we are in - the real-time information, insights, valuations, and communities surrounding these early pioneers is very different.
9. How do you envision web 3 or the decentralized world?
你怎么看待web 3 和去中心化世界？
当我们观察评估一下我们现今是如何和互联网互相影响的话，很明显这是一个破碎的模型。用户常常为了使用便捷的应用，在没有完全理解自己参与的商业模式时就无心的交出了对自己的数据的控制权。通过近期Facebook和其他科技大企业的隐私揭露，我们就能看出这样的商业模块有多么的危险。比如针对错误信息的不道德宣传；增加使用的操纵策略和有最高命令者独裁的审查制度。通过重新制定规章制度是没办法修复这个破碎的模型的，除非重新搭建根本架构。而这个基础架构必须同时牢固数据隐私，不可逆和抵抗审核制度。简单来说就是讲互联网的“货品”，比如说数据，从特定小范围的为盈利的公司转移到用户他们自己身上，在数码世界提供自我主权。我们对于这个未来思考了许多并且发表了“The Rebuild” 来发表实现这个将来的展望。（https://blog.aion.network/rebuild/home;）
When we look out and evaluate how we interact with the internet today, its clear to us that this is a broken model. Users have continuously traded of the control of their data for the convenience of the applications they are using without understanding the business model they have inadvertently consented to. We've seen the dangers of this business model with the recent privacy revelations with Facebook and other big tech players.
This model leads to practices like unethical advertising through misinformation, manipulation tactics for increased usage and censorship of information dictated by the largest bidder.
This broken model cant be fixed by increased regulation or lobbying, it must be solved by a re-architecture of the underlying infrastructure that these applications are built on. And entrenching data privacy, immutability and censorship-resistance into this infrastructure. This effectively moves the "inventory" of the internet, i.e data - from a small set of profit-driven companies to the user itself. Providing self-sovereignty in the digital world. We've been thinking a lot about this future and have kicked off a publication called The Rebuild, where we will be posting prospectives towards achieving this vision. https://blog.aion.network/rebuild/home;
10. I read that the AION tokens are really interesting. They can not only be used to transfer but also can be used to build 'bridges', which acts as the communication protocol between chains. How is it possible?
The different designs for interoperability allow for token bridges to be built using staking mechanisms, to ensure that bridge operators are honest and rewarded
We are still actively researching future designs for more scalable interoperability, because current architectures of bridging are subject to delays from POW consensus delays (non-finality)
11. Hi Matthew. So happy to see you here! I learned from your previous speech that there are three core features of Aion: federate, scale and spoke. I didn't quite understand the "spoke" feature. Can you explain more?
"Spoke" networks refers to independent blockchain networks that leverage the Aion codebase. These spoke networks can then communicate with the Aion mainchain using the bi-directional bridge.
12. What are the responsibilities of "token transfer bridge" that you mentioned?
The token transfer bridges are built with a group called "Operators" and a group called "Signatories". The operators need to transmit transactions across the chain, but only after they've been approved and validated by the signatories
13. What's your rewarding system for people who participate in your network?
The current reward system in place for participants in the network is the mining reward. Our monetary policy has a 1% annual inflation schedule which is used to reward miners.
14. If the transfer bridge is bi-directional, is the process fully decentralized? Is it possible that once I transfer my assets to AION, I won't be able to transfer them back to Ethereum?
The bridge design is decentralized in that it requires a group to act as signatories for transactions confirmations. The contracts on either side of the bridge (Aion and Ethereum) that you're interacting with would dictate how the token supplies interact with each other
15. what is the difference between AION and WBTC?
WBTC is a wrapping mechanism to represent BTC in a smart contract token. That design could be facilitated on top of Aion, and could even be migrated through Aion bridges. WBTC is a smart contract that could function on any smart contract network (in theory)
16. If there are roles like notary, how to make sure that they do not make malicious moves? For example, will they work together to transfer the tokens on Ethereum to elsewhere?
In the current design, the "notaries" (or "signatories") are an independent group that needs to sign valid transactions. Although collusion is theoretically possible, research is being done around staking and "punishment" to keep these actors honest. In the current design, the bridge is only between Ethereum and Aion, but could also run on any other EVM-based chain
Current implementations are more "reputation-based", similar to a POA type model
17. In case people did not see yesterday, we are the first public blockchain project to publish a financial report: https://blog.aion.network/the-aion-foundation-report-e369169f098
18. I assume the "bridge" is locked in Ethereum first then generated in AION? So how do you make sure that the tokens on Ethereum won't be transferred maliciously?
The bridge can be initiated on either side, and can control the token supply based on the contract logic. Nothing restricts a contract author from writing a bad contract, but the bridge interacts with its logic as intended.
Before transfers are accepted, the bridge operators need to wait a predefined number of blocks to be confident on finality. This is one of the current performance bottlenecks that we are working to solve through our consensus research team.
A simple example is that our Aion ERC20 bridge was designed to wait for 64 blocks on Ethereum before accepting the transfer
19. Current implementations are more "reputation-based", similar to a POA type model"
Does it mean that your cross-chain solution needs to trust notaries and signatories? Your solution is not a decentralized solution because you used POA, although you claim that you are a decentralized solution.
The big tradeoffs with any design of decentralization is an impact on performance. Users can choose which type of bridge they trust, and until we solve consensus finality issues, full decentralization without significant inefficiency is near impossible.
In our token swap, we compared to most other projects who did a 100% centralized swap, and opted to move down the spectrum to a more "trustless design"
We're still not satisfied with the current architecture, but are restricted based on performance bottlenecks. Our research is targetted at this problem.
Bitcoind – a daemon program that implements the Bitcoin protocol, is controlled through the command line. It is one of the main components of the Bitcoin network node software. Bitcoin software exists in two forms: a GUI application and a background application (daemon on Unix, service on Windows). Binance cryptocurrency exchange - We operate the worlds biggest bitcoin exchange and altcoin crypto exchange in the world by volume Java Grundlagen Skript zum Kurs der Programmierstarthilfe Fakultät für Ingenieurwissenschaften und Informatik Universität Ulm Jan-Patrick Elsholz und das Programmierstarthilfe-Team GUI-Programmierung mit Swing. Swing ist ein Bestandteil der Java Foundation Classes (JFC), mit denen grafische Benutzeroberflächen (GUIs) erstellt werden können. Click the large blue Download Bitcoin Core button to download the Bitcoin Core installer to your Downloads folder. Optional: Verify the release signatures. If you know how to use PGP, you should also click the Verify Release Signatures link on the download page to download a signed list of SHA256 file hashes. The 0.11 and later releases are signed by Wladimir J. van der Laan’s releases key w
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